The health-aware people of today know the importance of proteins, glycemic index, fiber, fruits and vegetables in their diets. Unfortunately, not so many of them are aware of the importance of fats, essential fatty acids (EFAs) in particular. Even if you eat a healthy and nutritious diet, you may not get the optimal intake of EFAs along with it. Omega-3 fatty acids are “poly-unsaturated”, a classification of fats having the most signficant impact on a positive body composition with more muscle and less fat, but also for people interested in general health and well-being. In this article, I will discuss the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in addition to the omega-6 fatty acids conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA).

You've probably heard the terms omega-3 and omega-6 before, but maybe not quite understood what they are all about. In short, we're talking about a class of fatty acids which the body can't manufacture on its own, so we need to include them in our diet via fatty fish (DHA and EPA), plant sources (CLA and GLA) or as nutritional supplements. The diet of our ancestors was quite different from the contemporary diet. As an example, the ratio between omega-3s and omega-6s was in the vicinity of 1:1 – i.e. 1g of omega-3 was consumed for each 1g of omega-6 consumed. An illustratory example of the importance of this ratio can be confirmed by observing the eskimos. In spite of eating an extremely high fat diet while living habitats of extreme weather conditions and physical stress, even the eldest eskimos possess a cardiovascular system as healthy as a childs. A cross-section of todays diet shows that this ratio is skewed to an extreme ratio of 1:25 – i.e. 1g of omega-3s per 25g of omega-6s, and this has been identified as one of the main culprits in the hazardous evolution of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity.

Scientific Muscle is proud to present a complete supplement formulated specifically to restore the balance of these essential fatty acids in the mainstream diet: 2g of omega-3s per 1g of omega-6s, or a ratio of 2:1. Let's delve deeper into the significant benefits you will experience in terms of health, performance and body composition when you include this advanced supplement in your diet. EFAs experience much attention from scientists due to their endless list of positive effects in humans, and there are literally hundreds of studies proving this. Some of this material might seem complicated at first, but you really don't need to understand it all to see how important High O is for an active man or woman such as yourself.

Lets have a closer look at the variables involved when determining the optimal composition of a supplement such as High O.

Phyto-plancton found in the ocean is carries the biological machinery for production of EPA and DHA, which means that the human source of these EFAs is found higher up in the food chain – fish. Fatty fish is bursting with EPA and DHA, but the concentration is subject to seasonal and geographical variation, type of feed (e.g. Salmon farming) and so on. Fish oils are labeled with a specific concentration which simplifies exact dosing. Cod liver oil is one of the most popular supplements of EPA and DHA, but you should be aware of the fact that the liver is the main organ involved in filtering of environmental toxins poisonous for humans – dioxins, mercury, PCB and other fat-soluble substances. This requires a certified destillation process to ensure a clean product. We have minimized this factor in High O by implementing pure fish oil, extracted from the fish's bodyfat. Despite the higher expense, you are ensured of a product completely void of environmental toxins and other hazardous chemicals, in addition to a higher concentration of the bioactive fatty acids EPA and DHA.

Flax seed oil is a very popular supplement for omega-3 fatty acids, more specifically alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). The human body enzymatically converts ALA into EPA and DHA, but this is unfortunately a process of insufficient efficiency in about 70% of the population and you may develop a deficiency despite ingestion of copious amounts of flax seed oil.

CLA is an organic fatty acid belonging to the omega-6 class, primarily found in beef and dairy products. CLA is a product of the fermentation process of linoleic acid by bacteria in a cow's gut, and is transported to the intramuscular fat cells or the milk afterwards, which are the sources we humans ingest. It also appears that CLA can be manufactured in the human body, via an enzyme called delta-9-desaturase. Common supplements of CLA on the market today contain highly variable amounts and ratios of the bioactive isomeres, cis 9-trans 11 and trans 10-cis 12. These isomeres have different effects in the body, where the trans 10-cis 12 isomere is the one associated with changes in fat cell metabolism. High O utilizes a source of CLA containing both a high concentration of these bioactive isomeres, as well as the optimal ratio.

GLA also belongs to the omega-6 class of fatty acids, and is enzymatically converted from alpha-linolenic acid. Supplement sources of GLA utilize evening primrose oil or borage oil, the latter having a GLA concentration almost 100% higher than the former. For this reason alone, we use borage oil in High O as a source of GLA.

A great deal of media attention has been brought to the effects of essential fatty acids on general health and wellness. A multitude of long-term studies with thousands of subjects have confirmed that fish oils dramatically reduces the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. High blood pressure and cholesterol will normalize, and blood vessel plaque formation will be reduced.

The body uses essential fatty acids in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, substances directly correlated with inflammatory reactions and pains. In general, omega-6 fatty acids are pro-inflammatory (note that CLA and GLA are exceptions to this rule), while the omega-3s are anti-inflammatory. EPA and DHA are significantly anti-inflammatory, having a healing effect on diseases such as arthritis, migraines, asthma, cystic fibrosis and tendinitis. They are also beneficial against osteoporosis, and recent studies have shown that EPA and DHA retard the growth of malignant tumors in lung- and breast tissue, by inhibiting arachidonic acid and pro-inflammatory cytokines (immune response factors).

DHA crosses the brain-blood barrier more readily than other fatty acids, thus playing an important role in brain function and development – learning and memory in particular. Studies show that fish oil supplements will boost the intelligence quotient (IQ) by 5 points in infants. DHA also possess preventative effects on stress and depressions due to stabilizing levels of serotonin and dopamine, two important neuro-transmitters controlling behaviour, wellness, sleep, and appetite.

CLA and fish oil share many beneficial qualities on health. Studies indicate that CLA may have a retarding effect on cancerous tumors. Cholesterol values will improve, primarily due to the cis9, trans11 isomer.

GLA also has anti-inflammatory effects via and increased production of prostaglandins of type PGE1. Thus, GLA is beneficial against diseases such as arthritis and migraines, but is also commonly used for menstrual cramps. The treatment of various skin diseases, e.g. eczema and psoriasis, as well as allergic reactions will benefit strongly from GLA supplementation. It will also restore the integrity of vessel walls and improve blood circulation.

Of greatest interest for people spending a lot of time and energy on training and dieting issues, is how High O can improve results. Let us first have a look at how the fat cells respond.

There is a continous circulation and exchange of the fat in fat cells. The fat in your diet is stored, while simultaneously, fat is mobilized into the blood stream and made available for oxidation. When more fat is mobilized than stored, fatty tissue will shrink – and you will, of course, also shrink. Fishoils rich in EPA and DHA, as well as CLA, will alter the behaviour of the fat cell on a cellular and genetic level when they are implemented as a part of your  long term diet. The end result is a reduction of body fat percentage, obviously provided your training and nutritional programs are in order. This happens via various mechanisms:

  • An enzyme called lipo-protein lipase (LPL) is responsible for the uptake from the blood stream and storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue. EPA, DHA and CLA will inhibit LPL levels, leading to less fat being stored.
  • Low insulin levels combined with cardio will mobilize fat from adipose tissue into the blood circulation, and these free fatty acids (FFA) directly reduce insulin sensitivity. Exercise selectively improves insulin sensitivity in muscle tissue, making it a logical necessity when your goal is a reduction in bodyfat while retaining as much muscle mass as possible. Insulin sensitivity is a measure of how easily glucose and lipids from your diet is stored in muscle- and adipose tissue. On a diet, you generally want low insulin sensitivity, leading to less calories being stored in your body. This is exactly what happens when you go on a diet with fewer and smaller meals, and perhaps restricting carbohydrates. EPA, DHA and CLA provides a double-whammy in this regard, by improving insulin sensitivity in muscle and reducing it in adipose tissue – i.e. calories are partitioned away from fat and towards muscle!


The metabolism of EFAs increases when you ingest the scientifically formulation found in High O. Recent studies have focused on the existence of reseptor protein complexes on fat- and muscle cells (PPAR) with highly specific effects on the mobilization and oxidation of fat. EPA, DHA and CLA affect these PPAR-receptors directly, thus improving both mobilization of fat from adipose tissue, as well as oxidation of EFAs in muscle.

Recent studies also indicate that GLA programs the fat cell to self-destruct, while other studies show a retarding effect on cell proliferation and growth, even in a hypercaloric situation. GLA dilates blood vessels and increases circulation. Increased blood circulation with less backpressure (from vessel dilation) simplifies the process of transporting recently mobilized FFAs from adipose tissue and to the mitochondria of muscle cells where they can be oxidized to provide energy.

So, in essence, all these mechanisms improve calorie partitioning – where the calories from your diet is stored in the body. Supplementation of essential fatty acids will redirect calories from adipose tissue towards muscle building and energy for exercise. Cellular and genetic “reprogramming” will make your body believe you should have more muscle and less fat! An important note is that you need long term supplementation in order to achieve storage of EFAs in you fat cells where they work their magic.

Another critical detail when you go on a diet is stabilizing blood sugar levels. Adding a tablespoon of High O to a meal, you will experience a feeling of fullness and satiation, higher energy levels, and extending the digestion of proteins, giving a more constant supply of amino acids for restitution and hypertrophy, even on 4 meals per day.

An imbalance in your intake of EFAs will affect hormone production in a negative way. Most of you are aware of the importance of optimal hormone levels to get results from your workouts, i.e. muscle growth and bodyfat percentage are directly correlated to hormone levels. High O is formulated to restore any imbalances, and you will see the results immediately!

The anti-inflammatory effect of EFAs is very important when you lift heavy weights and experience pains and aches in joints and tendons. You will notice a significant improvement after a couple of weeks supplementation of High O.

Recommended dosages of EPA+DHA is in the range of 2-6 grams per day for optimal effect. Studies on CLA are somewhat unclear, but we can extrapolate a dosing range of 1-3 grams per day for a nutrient partitioning effect. GLA has a recommended dosage of 500-700mg per day, where it is important to note that borage oil is far superior to evening primrose if you want a high concentration of GLA. A concept which applies to just about everything in your diet, is to ingest an optimal amount – where both too little and too much is inferior.

High O is formulated exactly as specified by optimal dosage recommendations - and since one tablespoon (10ml) has 2.1g of EPA+DHA, 0.85g of CLA, and 300mg of GLA - the daily dosage recommendation of 2 tablespoons is just perfect! Another important factor for the consumer is taste, and due to a high-quality destillation process and the addition of lemon aroma, High O tastes pretty good!

Don't get discouraged if some of the technical jargon in this article was difficult to grasp, I'm sure you've understood how the scientific formulation of High O is highly essential in your supplement arsenal. If you want a slimmer, healthier and more muscular and toned body, embrace the power of essential fatty acids as a unique tool to reach all your goals and beyond!




































































all content is copyrighted © 2006 - Boris Kleine